About this release

Our quarterly update

This release provides quarterly information on the following immunisations and vaccine-preventable diseases under surveillance in Scotland:

  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Measles
  • Meningococcal disease
  • Mumps
  • Pertussis
  • Pneumococcal disease
  • Rotavirus
  • Rubella
  • Shingles

Next release

The next release of this publication will be 6 September 2022.

Main points

Vaccine-preventable disease

The number of reported cases of vaccine-preventable diseases in Scotland remains low and stable.

All vaccine-preventable diseases under surveillance have shown a notable reduction since early 2020.

This is likely to be a result of the social distancing measures and restrictions implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Invasive bacterial disease

Case numbers for invasive Haemophilus influenzae, invasive pneumococcal disease and meningococcal disease in the first quarter of 2022 were higher than those for the first quarter of 2021, but lower than the number of cases reported for the same period in each of the previous three years (2018 to 2020).

Measles, mumps and rubella

There was one reported case of measles in the first quarter of 2022, which was imported from outwith the UK. This is the first case reported in Scotland since 2019.

There have been no cases of mumps reported in the first quarter of 2022, with only a single laboratory-confirmed case reported in 2021.

No cases of rubella have been reported in Scotland since 2017.

Pertussis

No cases of pertussis have been reported from January to March 2022, with only four laboratory-confirmed cases in 2021, a considerable decline from the 198 cases reported in 2020.

Results and commentary

Haemophilus influenzae

Background information

In 1992, following introduction of the Hib vaccine for young children, the number of H. influenzae type b cases fell dramatically, not only in the vaccinated group but also in older age groups. 

Due to reduced carriage of the organism within the respiratory tract of vaccinated children, transmission to the wider community was effectively suppressed.

The addition of the Hib booster vaccine in 2006 to the childhood immunisation schedule, reduced case numbers further.

In Scotland, typing is conducted on cases with positive laboratory reports for H. influenzae in order that national trends in disease subtypes can be monitored.

Further enhanced surveillance is carried out for all H. influenzae cases identified in children under the age of 5 and type b strains across all age groups.

Surveillance update for January to March 2022

There were 15 invasive H. influenzae cases reported in the first quarter of 2022.

This is higher than the number of cases reported for the same period in 2021 (n=4), but lower than the number of cases reported for each of the previous three years (range 23 to 25), as shown in Figure1.

Image caption Figure 1: Cumulative number of Haemophilus influenzae cases reported to PHS, 2017 to 2022 (week 13)

Of the 15 cases reported in the first quarter of 2022:

  • eight were people aged over 40 years
  • two were people aged between 31 to 40 years
  • five were children aged under 5 years old - two of whom were infants aged under one year.

There were no deaths associated with H. influenzae reported in the first quarter of 2022.

Figure 2 demonstrates the epidemiological impact of the Hib vaccine, for those aged under five (routinely vaccinated group) and for all ages (including under-fives).

There was a marked decrease in cases from 1992 in all age groups, followed by a rise in case numbers in the early 2000s. Case numbers decreased again following the introduction of the Hib booster vaccine, and figures have remained relatively stable since 2011.

Image caption Figure 2: Laboratory reports of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Scotland, 1988 to 2022 (week 13)

Figure 3 presents laboratory reports by serotype, since the introduction of the Hib booster campaign in 2003.

Of the 15 isolates in the first quarter of 2022:

  • eight were non-typable
  • one was identified as type f
  • one was identified as type a
  • typing was not carried out for the remaining five isolates.
Image caption Figure 3: Laboratory reports of Haemophilus influenzae by serogroup, 2003 to 2022 (week 13)

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics are published in our childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Measles

Background Information

Before vaccination, measles was a very common childhood disease in Scotland and deaths attributable to measles were substantial.

Following the introduction of measles vaccine in 1968 and the subsequent introduction of the MMR vaccine in 1988, the incidence of the disease has decreased dramatically.

However, as Figure 4 shows, outbreaks have occurred in recent years. These outbreaks have largely occurred in under-immunised populations.

Image caption Figure 4: Number of laboratory-confirmed cases of measles in Scotland by year, 1988 to 2022 (week 13)

Surveillance update for January to March 2022

From January to March 2022, one case of laboratory-confirmed measles has been reported. This is the first case reported in Scotland since 2019.

As shown in Figure 5, the number of cases each year has been variable, in:

  • 2020 and 2021 there were no cases
  • 2019 there were 18 cases
  • 2018 there were 2 cases
  • 2017 there were 5 cases
  • 2016 there were 26 cases

Most cases in Scotland over this time were imported or linked to imported cases within or outwith the UK.

In 2019, there were 18 laboratory-confirmed cases of measles reported.

Of these:

  • one case was acquired elsewhere within the UK, outwith Scotland – from which two further
  • seven cases were imported from outwith the UK, and resulted in two import-related cases in Scotland
  • the remaining six laboratory-confirmed cases of measles in Scotland were of unknown origin – typing indicated that the majority of these cases were strains identified elsewhere in the UK and Europe, which demonstrates transmission within the UK and across the continent prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic

In highly vaccinated populations such as Scotland, it is rare but possible for individuals who have received two doses of MMR vaccine to develop symptoms following exposure to a measles case. However, symptoms are usually attenuated, and individuals are unlikely to be as infectious.

No sustained further transmission occurred in Scotland, highlighting the success of the MMR vaccination programme and the importance of maintaining high vaccine uptake in Scotland.

Image caption Figure 5: Number of laboratory-confirmed cases of measles in Scotland by month and year, 2015 to 2022 (week 13)

Of cases reported in 2019, the median age of the 18 laboratory-confirmed cases measles cases was 24 years.

This is similar to the median age of cases in 2016 – which was 22 years – and 2017 – which was 27 years.

Of the two laboratory-confirmed cases reported in 2018 one case was in the under one year age group and the other case reported was in the 30 to 39 year age group. The age distribution of measles cases has varied over recent years, but the majority of cases are observed in children and young adults.

Measles outbreaks occurred across Europe throughout 2018 and continued into 2019.

There has been a notable reduction in cases from March 2020 with this trend likely to be a result of social distancing measures and travel restrictions implemented to limit the spread of COVID-19.

Between February 2021 and February 2022, there were 87 cases of measles reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

The EU/EEA countries with highest rate of cases between February 2021 and February 2022 were in Belgium and Cyprus, with a rate of 1.91 and 1.13 cases per million of population, respectively.

Ongoing measles activity in Europe and globally poses a threat to international travellers and Scotland will continue to face an elevated risk of imported cases from other counties and other regions of the UK.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics are published in our childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Meningococcal Disease

Background information

In 1999, the Meningococcal Invasive Disease Augmented Surveillance (MIDAS) system was introduced.

The surveillance scheme is managed jointly by Public Health Scotland and the Scottish Haemophilus Legionella Meningococcus and Pneumococcus Reference Laboratory (SHLMPRL).

Surveillance data from MIDAS informs the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Scotland, as analyses can be conducted according to:

  • age
  • serogroup
  • molecular typing
  • clinical presentation
  • outcome

Surveillance update for January to March 2022

There were nine cases of meningococcal disease reported in the first quarter of 2022.

This is higher than the number of cases reported for the same period in 2021 (n=2), but lower than the number of cases reported in the first quarter for the previous three years (range 21 to 32) as shown in Figure 6.

Image caption Figure 6: Cumulative number of meningococcal disease cases reported to MIDAS, 2018 to 2022 (week 13)

Figure 7 shows the number of meningococcal disease cases, according to age group and by quarter from 2001 to the end of the first quarter of 2022.

In the first quarter of 2022 there were:  

  • two cases aged under one year
  • four cases in the five to 24 years age group
  • three cases in those aged 25 years or over
Image caption Figure 7: Meningococcal disease cases reported to MIDAS by age group and quarter, 2001 to 2022 (week 13)

Of the nine cases of meningococcal disease reported in the first quarter of 2022:

  • eight were serogroup B
  • one case was based on clinical diagnosis, as shown in Figure 8
Image caption Figure 8: Meningococcal disease cases reported to MIDAS by serogroup, 1999 to 2022 (week 13)

Serogroup W cases continue to be reported separately following introduction of the MenACWY immunisation programme in summer 2015. Figure 9 demonstrates a positive impact of the MenACWY vaccine for the eligible population.

There were no serogroup W cases reported in the first quarter of 2022.

Image caption Figure 9: Meningococcal serogroup W by age group reported to PHS 2009 to 2022 (week 13)

The number of deaths between 2002 and the end of the first quarter of 2022, reported by serogroup is shown in Figure 10, and case fatality ratio is shown in Figure 11.

There was one death from meningococcal disease reported in the first quarter of 2022.

Image caption Figure 10: Meningococcal deaths by serotype reported to PHS 2002 to 2022 (week 13)
Image caption Figure 11: Meningococcal disease case fatality ratio, 2002 to 2022 (week 13)

Vaccination information

MenB vaccine

The MenB vaccine was introduced into the routine childhood vaccination programme on 1 September 2015.

All children born from 1 July 2015 were offered the Men B vaccine at eight weeks, 16 weeks and 12 months of age, alongside other routine childhood vaccinations.

A catch-up programme was rolled out for children born after 1 May 2015.

Children born before 1 May 2015 are not eligible to receive the MenB vaccine.

MenC vaccine

The combined Hib and MenC vaccine given in the UK is called Menitorix® and it is included in the UK childhood immunisation schedule, with routine vaccination recommended between 12 and 13 months of age.

Visit NHS Inform for further information about MenC vaccination.

MenACWY vaccine

MenACWY vaccine was recommended by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) and offered to 14 to 18-year-olds as a measure to address an increasing number of meningococcal serogroup W cases in this age group.

A phased catch-up programme also ran in Scotland between August 2015 and March 2016.

The vaccine was also offered to students under the age of 25 attending university for the first time from Autumn 2015. MenACWY vaccine continues to be offered routinely to those in secondary school year 3 (S3).

Visit NHS Inform for further information about MenACWY vaccine.

Further information

Find out more on the addition of MenB to routine vaccinations and their impact (external website).

Read a letter from the Chief Medical Officer letter on the changes to the MenC vaccine.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics are published in our childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Mumps

Background information

Mumps is a disease resulting from infection by the mumps virus.

It was a common childhood disease prior to the introduction of the MMR vaccine in 1988, with more than 85% of adults having evidence of previous infection.

Following the introduction of vaccination in 1988, the incidence of mumps has substantially decreased. However, from 2004 to 2020, there was a widespread increased incidence of mumps throughout the UK, with the number of laboratory-confirmed cases peaking in 2005.

Cases of mumps are commonly identified by laboratory testing based on positive PCR or IgM serology and reported to PHS. However, many cases of mumps may be diagnosed clinically or go undiagnosed and the reliance on laboratory reports may represent a considerable underestimate of the true rate of disease in the community.

Surveillance update for January to March 2022

No laboratory-confirmed cases of mumps have been reported from January to March 2022.

Since April 2020, there has been a substantial reduction in number of cases of mumps reported with only one laboratory-confirmed case of mumps reported in 2021.

As shown in Figure 12, small outbreaks occurred in:

  • 2009
  • 2012
  • 2014 to 2015

At these points in time, most of the individuals affected were adolescents and young adults and had not received two doses of MMR.

Image caption Figure 12: Number of laboratory-confirmed cases of mumps in Scotland by year, 2000 to 2022 (week 13)

As shown in figure 13, there were:

  • 385 cases reported in 2017
  • 281 cases reported in 2018
  • 784 cases reported in 2019
  • 864 cases reported in 2020
  • 1 reported case in 2021
  • no cases reported in 2022 up to week 13

In 2020, the majority of reported cases occurred in the first three months, as shown in figure 13. The decrease in reported cases since April 2020 is likely to be a result of social distancing measures and restrictions implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which will also have interrupted the transmission of mumps. These measures have also reduced attendance to the primary care setting, resulting in reduced opportunity to diagnose cases.

NHS boards experienced clusters of mumps into the first quarter of 2020, occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. The observed increase in cases in 2019 and early 2020, prior to the implementation of COVID-19 social restriction measures, may have represented poorer initial immune response to the mumps component of the MMR vaccine, waning immunity, or a combination of both within fully and partially vaccinated individuals.

Image caption Figure 13: Number of laboratory-confirmed cases of mumps in Scotland by month and year, 2015 to 2022 (week 13)

Age distribution of cases

Figure 14 shows that the majority of mumps cases in recent years have been in those aged 17 to 34 years.

Although the vaccination status of cases is not routinely collected, this is consistent with the age groups that are likely to be under-immunised with a mumps-containing vaccine, or for whom there is waning immunity.

Image caption Figure 14: Number of laboratory-confirmed cases of mumps in Scotland by age group and year, 2015 to 2020 (week 52)

The incidence of mumps by age group in 2020, shown in Figure 15, reflects a higher incidence among individuals aged 17 to 20 years compared to other ages (137 cases per 100,000 population).

This was followed by those aged 21 to 24 years (88 cases per 100,000 population).

Image caption Figure 15: Number of laboratory-confirmed cases of mumps by age group, 2020 (week 52)*

*Only one laboratory-confirmed case of mumps was reported in 2021 and no cases thus far in 2022, therefore only 2020 data has been presented.

Figure 16 shows the variability in the incidence of mumps between NHS Boards in 2020.

The highest incidence in 2020 was observed in:

  • NHS Forth Valley – 48 cases per 100,000 population
  • NHS Borders – 34 cases per 100,000 population
  • NHS Lothian – 25 cases per 100,000 population
Image caption Figure 16: Incidence of mumps cases per 100,000 population by NHS board, 2020 (to week 52)*

*Only one laboratory-confirmed case of mumps was reported in 2021 and no cases thus far in 2022, therefore only 2020 data has been presented.

Limitations

Relying on laboratory reports will represent an underestimate of mumps since there will be cases that are clinically and not laboratory-confirmation and other cases that may not attend healthcare settings for diagnosis.

It should also be noted that differences in sampling and testing practices may account for variation across the NHS boards.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics are published in our childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Pertussis

Background information

Pertussis (or whooping cough) is an acute bacterial disease of the respiratory tract, resulting from infection with Bordetella pertussis.

It can affect people of all ages. Adolescents and adults tend to suffer with a prolonged cough. Unimmunised infants are more likely to develop complications from pertussis infection which can require hospital treatment and, in severe cases, can be fatal.

As pertussis continues to circulate in Scotland, immunisation of pregnant women is vital. The immunity that young infants will receive from their mother, although very important in the first few weeks of life, offers only short-term protection. Therefore, it is important that infants are vaccinated as part of the routine childhood schedule on time in order to provide longer-term protection.

Surveillance update January to March 2022

There were no cases of pertussis reported from January to March 2022.

Four cases of laboratory-confirmed pertussis disease were reported in 2021.

In 2020, there were 198 laboratory reports of B. pertussis, the majority of which occurred in the first quarter of the year. This reduction is likely to be attributable to social distancing measures implemented to mitigate the transmission of COVID-19.

Figure 17 shows the number of positive laboratory reports of B. pertussis in Scotland from 2012 to the end of March 2022.

In 2012 and 2013, an outbreak occurred in Scotland, with 1,896 and 1,188 laboratory reports of pertussis, respectively.

Since then, the number of reports annually has been lower than those years:

  • 533 in 2017
  • 443 in 2018
  • 746 in 2019
Image caption Figure 17: Number of laboratory reports of Bordetella pertussis in Scotland by month, 2012 2022 (week 13)

Age breakdown of cases

Figure 18 presents the percentage of laboratory reports for pertussis by age group and year from 2012 to the end of December 2021.

The data for 2020 indicate that adults aged 50 to 59 years accounted for a comparatively higher percentage of laboratory reports than individuals in other age groups.

Of the four reported cases in 2021:

  • one case was aged between 15 and 19 years
  • one case was between 50 to 59 years
  • two cases were older than 70 years

Figure 19 presents the number of laboratory reports for pertussis by age group from January to December of 2020.

The graph shows that the 50 to 59 age group accounted for the highest number of cases, however incidence was highest among children under one year of age at 9.8 per 100,000 population as shown in Figure 20.

This was followed by children aged 1 to 4 years, with an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 population.

Image caption Figure 18: Percentage of Bordetella pertussis laboratory reports in Scotland by age group and year, 2012 to 2021 (week 52)*

*Note that only four cases of pertussis were reported in 2021.

Image caption Figure 19: Number of laboratory reports of Bordetella pertussis in Scotland by age group, 2020 (to week 52)**

**The low number or absence of cases in 2021 and 2022 means that only data until 2020 is presented.

Image caption Figure 20: Incidence of Bordetella pertussis per 100,000 population in Scotland by age group, 2020 (to week 52)**

**The low number or absence of cases in 2021 and 2022 means that only data until 2020 is presented.

Laboratory reports by NHS board

NHS Tayside and NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde each reported one laboratory-confirmed case of pertussis to the end of 2021, with NHS Lothian reporting two cases.

Figure 21 demonstrates the number of pertussis laboratory reports by NHS board from January to December 2020, while Figure 22 presents incidence per 100,000 population.

There is variation between NHS boards, with the highest incidence in 2020 in:

  • NHS Highland – 8.1 reports per 100,000 population
  • NHS Dumfries – 6.7 reports per 100,000
  • NHS Galloway – 6.7 reports per 100,000

No positive laboratory reports were received in 2020 from NHS Orkney, NHS Shetland, and NHS Western Isles.

Image caption Figure 21: Number of laboratory reports of Bordetella pertussis in Scotland by NHS board, 2020 (to week 52)**

**The low number/absence of cases in 2021 and 2022 means that only data until 2020 is presented.

Image caption Figure 22: Incidence of Bordetella pertussis per 100,000 population in Scotland by NHS board, 2020 (to week 52)**

**The low number or absence of cases in 2021 and 2022 means that only data until 2020 is presented.

Vaccination information

In response to the increase in cases and to protect young infants in the first few weeks of life until starting the routine childhood immunisation programme at eight weeks, a programme was introduced in October 2012 to offer pertussis vaccination to all pregnant women.

The vaccine is offered to pregnant women between gestational weeks 16 and 32 to maximise protection of the baby from birth.

Women may still be immunised after week 32 of pregnancy but this may not offer as high a level of passive immunological protection to the baby.

Vaccination late in pregnancy may, however, directly protect the mother against disease and thereby reduce the risk of exposure to her infant.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics are published in our childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Pneumococcal disease

Background information

Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) surveillance is based on local and reference laboratory reports confirming isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from sterile body sites, mainly blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

In 1999, the Scottish Pneumococcal Invasive Disease Enhanced Reporting (SPIDER) scheme was introduced. The enhanced surveillance scheme is jointly managed by Public Health Scotland and the Scottish Haemophilus, Legionella, Meningococcus and Pneumococcus Reference Laboratory (SHLMPRL).

Data from SPIDER informs understanding of the epidemiology of IPD in Scotland.

Surveillance update January to March 2022

There were 83 cases of IPD reported in the first quarter of 2022.

This is higher than the number of cases reported for the same period in 2021 (n=42), but lower than for the first quarter of the previous three years (range 149 to 223) as shown in Figure 23.

The lower number of cases of IPD observed since early 2020 is likely due to the impact of social distancing measures and other restrictions implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic over that period.

Image caption Figure 23: Cumulative number of invasive pneumococcal disease cases reported to SPIDER, 2018 to 2022 (week 13)

Figure 24 presents data on cases by age group, and indicates burden of IPD is in adults over 35 years:

  • 38 were aged 65 years or older (45.8%)
  • 26 were aged 35 to 64 years (31.3%)
  • two were aged 15 to 34 years (2.4%)
  • 17 were aged under five years (20.5%), of whom three were infants aged under one year
Image caption Figure 24: Cases of IPD reported to SPIDER by quarter and by age group, 1999 to 2022 (week 13)

IPD in children under five years old

Of the 83 IPD cases reported in the first quarter of 2022, there were 17 cases in children under five years of age. Of these, 16 were old enough to have been eligible for at least a first dose of PCV13 vaccination.

This is higher than the number of cases reported in children under five for the same period in each of the previous four years, which ranged from five to 13.

Serotypes detected in children aged under five years in the first quarter of 2022 are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in paediatric IPD cases reported to SPIDER in 2021 (week 52)

serotype <=2 mths 3-11 1 yr 2 yrs 3 yrs 4 yrs Total < 5 years
7C 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
15C 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
19A 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
19F 1 0 0 1 0 0 2
22F 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
23B 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
33F 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
NA 0 2 5 0 1 1 9
Total 1 2 8 2 1 3 17

Septicaemia and pneumonia were the most common clinical presentations in children aged under five years old.

Three of the 17 children aged under five years who had IPD in the first quarter of 2022 were known to have an underlying condition.

Circulating serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae

All IPD isolates and specimens should be sent to the reference laboratory for further typing and antimicrobial sensitivities.

Typing results were available for 57 of the 83 cases reported in the first quarter of 2022. This accounts for 68.7% of the cases reported.

The two most common serotypes reported were:

  • Serotype 3 (9 cases)
  • Serotype 8 (8 cases)

A total of 17 cases, or 20.5%, were caused by serotypes covered by the PCV13 vaccine.

For the most recent information on antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, see Scottish One Health Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in 2020.

Vaccination information

Two pneumococcal vaccines are available that provide protection against pneumococcal disease.

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23)

The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPV23, is recommended for many of the same people who receive an annual flu vaccination. Unlike the flu vaccine, which is given every year, the pneumococcal vaccine is usually only given once.

In 2003, the pneumococcal vaccination for all people aged 65 years and over was introduced, in addition to those aged under 65, with certain underlying conditions. This vaccine offers protection against 23 serotypes of IPD.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)

In September 2006, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV7 was introduced into the routine childhood immunisation schedule.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13)

In spring 2010, PCV7 was replaced with PCV13 to provide broader protection against more serotypes of S. pneumoniae.

PCV13 was initially offered as three doses:

  • primary doses at eight weeks
  • primary dose at 16 weeks
  • booster at 12 to 13 months

From April 2020, the PCV13 schedule changed to:

  • primary dose at 12 weeks
  • booster dose at between 12 and 13 months.

PCV13 offers protection against the following 13 serotypes of S. pneumoniae:

  • 1
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 14
  • 6A
  • 6B
  • 7F
  • 9V
  • 18C
  • 19A
  • 19F
  • 23F

To coincide with the introduction of PCV7, enhanced surveillance was established for children under five years of age.

A very limited number of high-risk older children and adults are also indicated for PCV13 – see Pneumococcal: the green book, chapter 25 and CMO(2020)02: changes to the childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) schedule from 6 April 2020.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics for children are published in our childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Vaccine uptake statistics for adults are published by our Clinical and Protecting Health Directorate.

Rotavirus

Background information

Rotavirus is highly infectious and a leading cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In Scotland, most children will have had at least one rotavirus infection by five years old.

Prior to the implementation of the rotavirus vaccination programme, rotavirus reports peaked between February and April. This caused considerable additional pressure on the NHS, particularly in primary care and paediatric healthcare facilities.

In July 2013, Rotarix®, a live attenuated vaccine was introduced into the routine infant vaccination schedule in the UK, with doses given at 8 and 12 weeks.

Surveillance update January to March 2022

Figure 25 shows the number of rotavirus laboratory reports in Scotland from 2011 to the end of March 2022.

Following the introduction of the immunisation programme, there has been a marked reduction in the number of laboratory reports, which clearly demonstrates the impact of the vaccine.

A reduction of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus samples has also been seen in unvaccinated children suggestive of indirect population protection due to the vaccine.

Image caption Figure 25: Laboratory reports of rotavirus in Scotland from 2011 to end of March 2022

Hospitalisations

Scottish Morbidity Record 01 (SMR01) is a national dataset held by Public Health Scotland that provides data on admissions to General Acute Inpatient and Day Case Units.

Surveillance of hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus is undertaken using defined International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10) codes for rotavirus and viral enteritis (possible rotavirus).

Figure 26 shows the number of admissions for rotavirus for children aged less than five years by month in the three-year period 2014 to 2017 compared to an average of the years 2010 to 2013.

This figure shows the impact of the vaccine on rotavirus related hospital admissions of young children.

The increase in hospital admissions observed in November and December of 2016, was prior to the rotavirus season and therefore most likely associated with increased circulation of norovirus at that time.

Image caption Figure 26: Number of admissions for rotavirus and viral enteritis (including rotavirus) of children < 5 years, 2014 to 2017 compared to 2010 to 2013 pre-vaccine average

GP consultations

Infections resulting in hospitalisation represent a fraction of cases that occur in the community which, while less severe, cause substantial illness.

Methods to monitor the impact of the vaccine programme in community settings have also been established to obtain a more complete representation of the impact of the vaccine on the burden of disease.

Figure 27 presents the consultation rate per 100,000 of the population for infants less than one year of age for gastrointestinal illness and compares 2014 to 2018 to an average of 2010 to 2013 before the vaccine was introduced.

The impact of the vaccine is clear with an absence of a seasonal peak of consultations corresponding to the rotavirus season in the years 2014 to 2018.

Image caption Figure 27: GP consultation rate for all gastrointestinal illness in infants under 1 year, 2014 to 2017 compared to 2011 to 2013 pre-vaccine average

Vaccination information

A national rotavirus vaccination programme using the vaccine Rotarix® was introduced into the routine infant vaccination schedule in Scotland in July 2013, with approximately 93% uptake rate.

The vaccine provides protection against the most common strains of rotavirus, but not other enteric viruses such as norovirus.

Infants are offered two doses of the oral vaccine Rotarix®, which is a weakened form of virus which can't cause disease but that protects against rotavirus at an interval of at least four weeks between doses - at eight weeks and again at 12 weeks.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics are published in our childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Rubella

Background information

Before the introduction of rubella vaccination, more than 80% of adults had evidence of previous exposure to rubella.

A vaccination programme targeting girls and non-immune women of childbearing age was introduced in the UK in 1970 and reduced the number of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)-related births and terminations.

In 1988, the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced for both boys and girls and further decreased cases of rubella to near elimination levels (Figure 28).

Surveillance update January to March 2022

No laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella have been reported from January to March 2022.

The last reported case of laboratory-confirmed rubella in Scotland was in 2017.

Image caption Figure 28: Number of laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella in Scotland by year, 1988 to 2022 (week 13)

Congenital rubella surveillance

Congenital rubella surveillance can be viewed on the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) website.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Vaccine uptake statistics are published in the childhood immunisation statistics quarterly report.

Shingles

Background information

Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus. Varicella zoster is the same virus that causes chickenpox.

Shingles is characterised by a painful skin rash. The main complication from shingles is post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), a long-lasting neuropathic pain after the rash has disappeared.

PHN can persist for months or years and the risk and severity increases with age. Its effect can be very debilitating.

The Scottish Morbidity Record 01 (SMR01) is a national dataset held by the NHS Information Services Division and provides data on inpatient and day case admissions. It is used to investigate the burden of disease on hospital inpatient and day-case discharges from acute specialties from hospitals in Scotland.

Surveillance data

Figure 29 shows the rate of admissions per 100,000 population for shingles and related complications by age group between 2010 and 2017.

This graph shows that the rate of admissions is higher among the older age groups.

Image caption Figure 29: Rate of admissions per 100,000 population for shingles and related complications (first position) by age group and year, 2010 to 2017

GP consultations

An aggregated dataset is received quarterly from approximately 50% of GP practices in Scotland on consultations for shingles and related complications.

Figure 30 presents the number of consultations for shingles by age group between 2011 and 2017.

Image caption Figure 30: Number of GP consultations for shingles and related complications by age band and year

Figure 31 shows the rate of GP consultations for shingles per 1,000 population by age group between 2011 and 2017.

As with the data in Figure 29, this chart suggests that the burden of shingles is higher among the older age groups with this data demonstrating a decline in the number of consultations after 2014 observed in those over 70 years.

This is consistent with the cohort who were eligible to receive shingles vaccination from September 2013. 

Image caption Figure 31: Rate of GP consultations for shingles per 1,000 population by year and age group, 2011 to 2017

Vaccination information

The vaccine is offered routinely to those aged 70 years.

Opportunistic vaccination is offered to eligible individuals aged 71 to 79 years who have not previously been vaccinated.

Read more in Shingles (herpes zoster): the green book, chapter 28a.

Zostavax®

In September 2013, a national shingles vaccination programme was introduced using Zostavax®.

As Zostavax® is a live attenuated vaccine, it cannot be given to patients who are severely immunosuppressed.

Download the screening tool to identify when the Zostavax® vaccine is contraindicated.

Shingrix®

From September 2021 a non-live vaccine was introduced following recommendation from the JCVI.

This vaccine, Shingrix®, should be offered to those people for whom Zostavax® is contraindicated due to severe immunosuppression but who are eligible for vaccination under the current programme. This means that they can gain a similar level of protection to those with no contraindications.

Vaccine uptake statistics

Tables 2 and 3 present shingles vaccine coverage among the eligible routine and catch-up cohort of the Zostavax® vaccine in Scotland for the current programme to the end of February 2022.

The uptake for the 2020 to 2021 season is lower than anticipated.

This trend is likely attributable to the social restriction measures and reduced physical consultation time between patients and clinicians that was implemented to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 infection.

Table 2: Shingles vaccination coverage amongst eligible routine cohort (70 years) by NHS Board, September to February 2022

NHS Board Number individuals in routine cohort Number of individuals in routine cohort vaccinated Shingles vaccination coverage amongst routine cohort (%)
Ayrshire & Arran 4,535 696 15.4
Borders 1,515 106 7.0
Dumfries & Galloway 2,012 22 1.1
Fife 4,173 875 21
Forth Valley 3,405 351 10.3
Grampian 5,656 809 14.3
Greater Glasgow & Clyde 10,790 1,687 15.6
Highland 3,842 936 24.4
Lanarkshire  6,126 1,143  18.7
Lothian 7,845 1,477 18.8
Orkney 282 88 31.2
Shetland 270 66 24.4
Tayside 4,672 1,220 26.1
Western Isles 351 173 49.3
Scotland 55,474 9,649 17.9
References

*The figures in this column are based on the number of individuals registered at a GP practice and may thus be slightly lower than the overall population in this age group.

Table 3: Shingles vaccination coverage amongst eligible catch-up cohort (aged 71-79 years) by NHS Board, September to November 2021

NHS Board Number of individuals Number of individuals vaccinated Shingles vaccination coverage (%)
Ayrshire & Arran 35971 19198 53.4
Borders 12035 6902 57.4
Dumfries & Galloway 15997 8817 55.1
Fife 33136 19953 60.2
Forth Valley 25666 15633 60.9
Grampian 42193 23811 56.4
Greater Glasgow & Clyde 78368 42083 53.7
Highland 29162 17798 61.0
Lanarkshire 45866 24306 53.0
Lothian 59432 34839 58.6
Orkney 2192 1592 72.6
Shetland 2064 1,192 57.8
Tayside 36574 23126 63.2
Western Isles 2617 1711 65.4
Scotland 421273 240961 57.2
References

*The figures in this column are based on the number of individuals registered at a GP practice and may thus be slightly lower than the overall population in this age group.

Contacts

General enquiries

If you have an enquiry relating to this publication, please email phs.immunisation@phs.scot.

Media enquiries

If you have a media enquiry relating to this publication, please contact the Communications and Engagement team.

Requesting other formats and reporting issues

If you require publications or documents in other formats, please email phs.otherformats@phs.scot.

To report any issues with a publication, please email phs.generalpublications@phs.scot.

Further information

Statistical designation

This is Official Statistics publication

It is important that users understand that limitations may apply to the interpretation of this data, further details of which are presented in this report.

All official statistics should comply with the UK Statistics Authority’s Code of Practice which promotes the production and dissemination of official statistics that inform decision making.

Visit the UK Statistics Authority UK website to find out more about the Code of Practice (external website).

Find out more about National Statistics on the UK Statistics Authority website (external website).

Early access

Under terms of the "Pre-Release Access to Official Statistics (Scotland) Order 2008", PHS is obliged to publish information on those receiving Pre-Release Access ("Pre-Release Access" refers to statistics in their final form prior to publication). The standard maximum Pre-Release Access is five working days.

Shown below are details of those receiving standard Pre-Release Access.

Standard Pre-Release Access:

  • Scottish Government Health Department
  • NHS Board Chief Executives
  • NHS Board Communication leads

Metadata

The metadata for this document has been split into sections as there are some differences between the diseases. 

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This release provides information on the laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections reported in Scotland for the period January to March 2022

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Haemophilus influenzae

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

ECOSS (Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland).

Colindale/PHE enhanced surveillance database for all paediatric (younger than 5years) of any type, and all invasive type b infections, regardless of age.

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022 

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears.

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 1988 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, PHS aims to continually improve the interpretation of the data and therefore analysis methods are regularly reviewed and may be updated in the future.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are bacteria commonly carried in the respiratory tract which can cause serious invasive disease, especially in young children.

Invasive disease is usually caused by the encapsulated strains, specifically, six caspular serotypes (a - f) of which type b (Hib) was the most common, until the introduction of the vaccine.

The most common presentations of invasive H. influenzae infection are meningitis, sepicaemia and acute respiratory infections.

Vaccination for Hib is part of the routine childhood immunisations schedule.

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of invasive H. Influenzae infections in Scotland and in assessing vaccination effectiveness.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to data quality and assurance processes.

Enhanced surveillance data on cases is cross-checked by local teams and against HPZone records.

Completeness

All data returned from ECOSS are used for analysis.

Comparability

Public Health England H. influenza data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Number of new H. Influenzae isolates from sterile sites.

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2022

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This release provides information on the laboratory- confirmed and epidemiologically linked cases of measles reported in Scotland from January to March 2022.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Measles infection

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

ECOSS (Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland).

Colindale/PHE enhanced surveillance database.

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 1988 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, PHS aims to continually improve the interpretation of the data and therefore analysis methods are regularly reviewed and may be updated in the future.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Measles is a rash illness resulting from infection with the measles virus. It can affect people of all ages but infants less than one year of age and those who are immunocompromised are at increased risk of complications and death.

It's one of the most communicable diseases with one case having the potential to infect another 12 to 18 individuals through airborne transmission and respiratory droplets in susceptible populations.

New cases of measles are identified by laboratory testing based on positive PCR or IgM serology.

MMR is the combined vaccine that protects against measles, mumps and rubella and is the most effective strategy for preventing the transmission of measles.

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of measles infection in Scotland and assessing the impact of the MMR vaccination programme.

These data are also used to monitor UK progress towards measles elimination targets.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to data quality and assurance processes.

Enhanced surveillance data on cases is cross-checked by local teams and against HPZone records.

Completeness

All data returned from ECOSS are used for analysis.

Comparability

Public Health England measles data and information.

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Number of new measles infections.

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2022

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This release provides information on cases of meningococcal disease reported in Scotland for the period October to December 2021.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Meningococcal Disease

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

ECOSS (Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland).

Meningococcal Invasive Disease Augments Surveillance (MIDAS).

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 1999 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, PHS aims to continually improve the interpretation of the data and therefore analysis methods are regularly reviewed and may be updated in the future.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Meningococcal disease occurs as a result of a systemic bacterial infection with Neisseria meningitidis.

Meningococcal disease cases overwhelmingly show symptoms of meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) or septicaemia (blood poisoning).

Meningococcal disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children and young adults.

N. meningitidis is classified according to its outer membrane characteristics via a process known as serogrouping. There are a number of different serogroups, the most common of which in the UK is B followed by W. Cases of serogroup Y, Z and C disease have also been also reported. Currently there are vaccines to protect against certain strains within serogrouups A, B, C, W and Y.

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Scotland and in assessing the vaccination effectiveness.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to a data quality and assurance processes.

Enhanced surveillance data on cases is cross-checked by local teams and against HPZone records.

Completeness

All data returned from ECOSS are used for analysis.

Comparability

Public Health England meningococcal disease data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Number of new menigococcal infections.

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2022

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This release provides information on the laboratory confirmed cases of mumps reported in Scotland for the period from January to March 2022.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Mumps infection

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

ECOSS (Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland).

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 2000 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, PHS aims to continually improve the interpretation of the data and therefore analysis methods are regularly reviewed and may be updated in the future.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Mumps is a disease resulting from infection by the mumps virus.

The disease is characterised by swelling of one or both cheeks or sides of the jaw, also known as parotitis, along with: fever, headache and swollen glands although asymptomatic mumps infection is common, particularly in children.

Mumps is rarely fatal.

New cases of mumps are identified by laboratory testing based on positive PCR or IgM serology.
Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease.

MMR is the combined vaccine that protects against measles, mumps and rubella,and is the most effective strategy for preventing the transmission of mumps.

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of mumps infection in Scotland and assessing the impact of the MMR vaccination programme.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to a data quality and assurance processes.

Completeness

All data returned from ECOSS are used for analysis.

Comparability

Public Health England measles data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Number of new mumps infections.

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2022

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This report provides epidemiological information on positive laboratory cases of Bordetella pertussis in Scotland for the period January to March 2022.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Whooping cough

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland (ECOSS) for laboratory reports.

General practice IT systems for maternal pertussis vaccination data.

National Records of Scotland for mid-year population estimates (used for incidence calculations).

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears.

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 1988 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, the information held within ECOSS is subject to change as additional laboratory data is reported and thus periodic updates of historical data are expected.

Historical coverage estimates of maternal pertussis vaccination may also be updated as additional data are reported from general practices.

Revisions relevant to this publication

Planned revisions have been made to historical data based on updated laboratory information received through ECOSS.

Concepts and definitions

Whooping cough (or pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by infection with the bacterium Bordetella pertussis.

Pertussis is spread from person to person by coughing and sneezing.

Early symptoms often include a runny nose, fever, and mild cough, which after a few weeks can progress to uncontrolled coughing fits and subsequent vomiting episodes.

Some individuals with pertussis exhibit a characteristic "whoop" sound caused by gasping for breath after coughing fits.

Unimmunised infants are most at risk of severe complications, which include pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, and death.

Vaccination against pertussis is offered to infants at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age and to children at 3 years and 4 months of age.

Vaccination is also offered to all pregnant women between 16 and 32 weeks of gestation.

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of pertussis and the uptake of the maternal pertussis vaccine in Scotland in order to inform public health planning and response.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to routine data cleaning and quality assurance processes and irregular results are cross-checked with the appropriate laboratory.

Vaccine uptake data are received as aggregated quarterly data extracts from general practice IT systems and are cross-checked against previous estimates to identify and investigate any irregularities.

Completeness

All data returned from ECOSS are used for the analysis of pertussis laboratory results.

Coverage of maternal pertussis vaccination is normally based on data received from over 95% of general practices.

Comparability

Public Health England pertussis data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Count of pertussis laboratory reports (number).

Incidence of laboratory reports (rate per 100,000 population).

Age breakdown of laboratory reports (percentage).

Coverage of maternal pertussis vaccination (percentage).

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2022

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This release provides information on the laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal disease reported in Scotland and vaccination uptake for the period January to March 2022.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Pneumococcal disease

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

ECOSS (Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland).

Scottish Pneumococcal invasive disease enhanced reporting (SPIDER).

PPV23 vaccination uptake data (annual) – electronic extracts direct from general practice.

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears.

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 1999 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, PHS aims to continually improve the interpretation of the data and therefore analysis methods are regularly reviewed and may be updated in the future.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is the bacterium responsible for causing pneumococcal infection.

Pneumococcal infections are defined as invasive or non-invasive according to which area of the body is affected.

Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is caused by infection of normally sterile sites, for example, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). IPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the very young, elderly or immunocompromised individuals.

Two pneumococcal vaccines are available that help to protect against pneumococcal disease.

New cases of IPD are identified by laboratory reports confirming isolation of S. pneumoniae from sterile body sites.

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in Scotland and in assessing vaccination effectiveness.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to a data quality and assurance processes.

Enhanced surveillance data on cases is cross-checked by local teams and against HPZone records.

Vaccine uptake data are received by PHS as annual automated aggregated data extracts from the GP practice systems. These data are subject to limited data quality assurances.

Completeness

All data returned from systems are used for analysis.

Approximately 97% of GP practices routinely report vaccine uptake to PHS.

Changes being made under the Vaccine Transformation Programme (VTP).

Comparability

Public Health England pneumococcal disease data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Number of new S. pnuemoniae isolates from sterile sites.

Cumulative number of vaccinations received by eligible population.

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2022

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This release provides information on laboratory confirmed cases of rotavirus to the period March 2022, consultation rate per 100,000 of the population for infants less than one year of age for gastrointestinal illness to the year end 2018, and on hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus to the end of 2017.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Rotavirus

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland (ECOSS) for laboratory reports.

Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR01) for hospital admissions for rotavirus and viral enteritis.

General practice IT systems for vaccination data and GP consultations.

National Records of Scotland for mid-year population estimates (used for rate calculations).

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears.

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 2011 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, PHS aims to continually improve the interpretation of the data and therefore analysis methods are regularly reviewed and may be updated in the future.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Rotavirus infections in children and adults can last approximately three to eight days and symptoms include: severe diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach cramps, mild fever.

The combination of symptoms can lead to dehydration, requiring admission to hospital, especially in young infants.

Before the introduction of a national infant rotavirus vaccination programme in 2013, an estimated 55,000 gastroenteritis cases caused by rotavirus occurred in Scotland each year in children less than five years old.

Approximately 1,200 of these children were hospitalised.

The vaccine provides protection against the most common strains of rotavirus, but not other enteric viruses such as norovirus. 

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of rotavirus and the uptake of the maternal pertussis vaccination in Scotland in order to inform public health planning and response.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to data quality and assurance processes.

GP consultation data are received as aggregated monthly data extracts from general practice IT systems and are cross-checked against previous data to identify and investigate any irregularities.

SMR01 data are subject to thorough data validation processes.

Completeness

Hospital admission data is analysed once SMR01 completeness reaches at least 95%.

Information on GP consultations and shingles vaccination coverage is normally based on data received for over 95% of general practices.

Comparability

Public Health England rotavirus data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Count of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus (number).

Hospital admissions for rotavirus and viral enteritis in children aged less than 5 years (count).

GP consultations for gastrointestinal illness in children less than one years (rate per 100,000 population).

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2021

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 June 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This release provides information on the laboratory- confirmed and epidemiologically cases of rubella reported in Scotland for the period January to March 2022.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Rubella infection

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

ECOSS (Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland).

Colindale/PHE enhanced surveillance database.

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

January to March 2022, approximately 2 months in arrears.

Continuity of data

Quarterly as at March, June, September and December. Data from 1988 to March 2022 is presented.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, PHS aims to continually improve the interpretation of the data and therefore analysis methods are regularly reviewed and may be updated in the future.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Rubella is a rash illness caused by the rubella virus and is also known as German measles.

It is generally a mild self-limiting illness, but if acquired by women in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy can have devastating effects on the unborn child including miscarriage or Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS).

New cases of rubella are identified by laboratory testing based on positive PCR or IgM serology.

Rubella is a vaccine-preventable disease.

MMR is the combined vaccine that protects against measles, mumps and rubella, and is the most effective strategy for preventing the transmission of rubella

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of rubella infection in Scotland and assessing the impact of the MMR vaccination programme.

These data are also used to monitor UK progress towards rubella elimination targets.

Accuracy

ECOSS data is subject to a data quality and assurance processes.

Enhanced surveillance data on cases is cross-checked by local teams and against HPZone records.

Completeness

All data returned from ECOSS are used for analysis.

Comparability

Public Health England rubella data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Number of new rubella infections.

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2021

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

Publication title

Immunisation and vaccine-preventable diseases quarterly report.

Description

This report provides information on hospital admissions and GP consultations for shingles and related complications in Scotland.

Cumulative coverage estimates of shingles vaccination for the current season are also provided.

Theme

Infections in Scotland

Topic

Herpes zoster infection

Format

HTML

Data source(s)

Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR01) for hospital admissions for shingles and related complications.

General practice IT systems for vaccination data and GP consultations.

National Records of Scotland for mid-year population estimates (used for rate calculations).

Date that data are acquired

9 May 2022

Release date

7 June 2022

Frequency

Quarterly

Timeframe of data and timeliness

October to December 2021, approximately 2 months in arrears.

Continuity of data

A national shingles vaccination programme was introduced in Scotland in September 2013.

Data on hospital admissions due to shingles and related complications are provided from 2010 onwards, while data on GP consultations are provided from 2011 onwards.

Revisions statement

These data are not subject to planned major revisions.

However, historical coverage estimates of shingles vaccination may be updated as additional data are reported from general practices.

Revisions relevant to this publication

This publication has no revisions.

Concepts and definitions

Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus, which is the same virus that causes chickenpox.

Following initial infection, usually in childhood, the virus can lie inactive in the body’s nervous system.

Reactivation of the virus can take place later in life, when the immune system has been weakened by factors such as age, stress, illness, or immunosuppresant treatments.

Shingles is characterised by a painful skin rash and the primary complication of this illness is post-herpetic neuralgia, a neuropathic pain which can last for months or years after the rash has disappeared.

The shingles vaccine is offered routinely to those aged 70 years and opportunistically to individuals ages 71 to 79 years who have not previously been vaccinated.

Relevance and key uses of the statistics

These data are essential for monitoring the epidemiology of shingles in Scotland and for assessing vaccine effectiveness.

Accuracy

Vaccine uptake and GP consultation data are received as aggregated monthly data extracts from general practice IT systems and are cross-checked against previous data to identify and investigate any irregularities.

SMR01 data are subject to thorough data validation processes.

Completeness

Hospital admission data is analysed once SMR01 completeness reaches at least 95%.

Information on GP consultations and shingles vaccination coverage is normally based on data received for over 95% of general practices.

Comparability

Public Health England shingles data and information (external website).

Accessibility

It is the policy of Public Health Scotland to make its websites and products accessible according to our accessibility statement.

Coherence and clarity

The report has been produced using the standard PHS publications template and is available as HTML web pages.

Value type and unit of measurement

Hospital admissions for shingles and related complications (rate per 100,000 population).

GP consultations for shingles and related complications (rate per 1,000 population).

Count of GP consultations for shingles and related complications (number).

Coverage of shingles vaccination (percentage).

Disclosure

Our protocol on statistical disclosure is followed.

Official Statistics designation

Official Statistics

UK Statistics Authority Assessment

Not assessed.

Last published

8 March 2021

Next published

7 June 2022

Date of first publication

17 March 2020

Help email

phs.immunisation@phs.scot

Date form completed

29 April 2022

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Last updated: 13 June 2022
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