We report that in a cohort of 45,965 adults, who were receiving either the ChAdOx1 or the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in those who had no prior infection with SARS-CoV-2, seroconversion rates and quantitative antibody levels after a single dose were lower in older individuals, especially in those aged >60 years. Two vaccine doses achieved high responses across all ages. Antibody levels increased more slowly and to lower levels with a single dose of ChAdOx1 compared with a single dose of BNT162b2, but waned following a single dose of BNT162b2 in older individuals. In descriptive latent class models, we identified four responder subgroups, including a ‘low responder’ group that more commonly consisted of people aged >75 years, males and individuals with long-term health conditions. Given our findings, we propose that available vaccines should be prioritized for those not previously infected and that second doses should be prioritized for individuals aged >60 years. Further data are needed to better understand the extent to which quantitative antibody responses are associated with vaccine-mediated protection.
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Wei, J., Stoesser, N., Matthews, P., Ayoubkhani, D., Studley, R., Bell, I., Bell, J., Newton, J., Farrar, J., Diamond, I., Rourke, E., Howarth, A., Marsden, B., Hoosdally, S., Jones, E., Stuart, D., Crook, D., Peto, T., Pouwels, K., Eyre, D., Walker, A., Lambert, A., Thomas, T., Black, R., Felton, A., Crees, M., Jones, J., Lloyd, L., Sutherland, E., Pritchard, E., Vihta, K., Doherty, G., Kavanagh, J., Chau, K., Hatch, S., Ebner, D., Ferreira, L., Christott, T., Dejnirattisai, W., Mongkolsapaya, J., Cameron, S., Tamblin-Hopper, P., Wolna, M., Brown, R., Cornall, R., Screaton, G., Lythgoe, K., Bonsall, D., Golubchik, T., Fryer, H., Cox, S., Paddon, K., James, T., House, T., Robotham, J., Birrell, P., Jordan, H., Sheppard, T., Athey, G., Moody, D., Curry, L., Brereton, P., Jarvis, I., Godsmark, A., Morris, G., Mallick, B., Eeles, P., Hay, J., VanSteenhouse, H. & Lee, J. 2021, 'Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in 45,965 adults from the general population of the United Kingdom', Nature Microbiology, 6(9), pp. 1140-1149. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-021-00947-3