The use of cigarettes among adolescents and young adults (AYA) is an important issue. This study assessed the association between regular and electronic-cigarettes use among AYA and factors of the Capability-Motivation-Opportunity-for-Behavior-change (COM-B) model. A multi-country survey was conducted between August-2020 and January-2021, Data was collected using the Global-Youth-Tobacco-Survey and Generalized-Anxiety-Disorder-7-item-scale. Multi-level logistic-regression-models were used. Use of regular and electronic-cigarettes were dependent variables. The explanatory variables were capability-factors (COVID-19 status, general anxiety), motivation-factors (attitude score) and opportunity-factors (country-level affordability scores, tobacco promotion-bans, and smoke free-zones) controlling for age and sex. Responses of 6,989-participants from 25-countries were used. Those who reported that they were infected with COVID-19 had significantly higher odds of electronic-cigarettes use (AOR = 1.81, P = 0.02). Normal or mild levels of general anxiety and negative attitudes toward smoking were associated with significantly lower odds of using regular-cigarettes (AOR = 0.34, 0.52, and 0.75, P < 0.001) and electronic-cigarettes (AOR = 0.28, 0.45, and 0.78, P < 0.001). Higher affordability-score was associated with lower odds of using electronic-cigarettes (AOR = 0.90, P = 0.004). Country-level-smoking-control policies and regulations need to focus on reducing cigarette affordability. Capability, motivation and opportunity factors of the COM-B model were associated with using regular or electronic cigarettes.


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Sabbagh, H., Abdelaziz, W., Quritum, M., Alkhateeb, N., Abourdan, J., Qureshi, N., Qureshi, S., Hamoud, A., Mahmoud, N., Odeh, R., Al-Khanati, N., Jaber, R., Balkhoyor, A., Shabi, M., Folayan, M., Alade, O., Gomaa, N., Alnahdi, R., Mahmoud, N., El Wazziki, H., Alnaas, M., Samodien, B., Mahmoud, R., Abu Assab, N., Saad, S., Alhachim, S. & El Tantawi, M. 2022, 'Cigarettes' use and capabilities-opportunities-motivation-for-behavior model: a multi-country survey of adolescents and young adults', Frontiers in Public Health, 10, article no: 875801. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.875801

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Last updated: 02 June 2023
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