Restarting the mass tourism industry relies on the success of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign which requires individuals' voluntary participation to reduce health risks to hosts and visitors. This study identifies segments of Italian residents based on vaccine confidence at the early stage of a voluntary mass vaccination program. Using a survey held with 3,893 Italian residents, two COVID-19 vaccine confidence clusters were identified. These clusters were compared and revealed significant differences in response and self-efficacy, vaccine adoption, travel behaviour and involvement in the tourism industry.


This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

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Williams, N., Nguyen, T., Del Chiappa, G., Fedeli, G. & Wassler, P. 2021, 'COVID-19 vaccine confidence and tourism at the early stage of a voluntary mass vaccination campaign: A PMT segmentation analysis', Current Issues in Tourism. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1963216

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Last updated: 17 June 2022
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