Aims. Maternal mental distress in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother and child’s physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide insight into mental wellbeing of pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19, by assessing symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Methods. Data from two cohorts of pregnant women recruited from Danish general practice were compared. A COVID-19 lockdown cohort (n=330) completed questionnaires between April 8th and May 6th. Responses were compared to those from a control cohort of women from 2016 (n=1428). Mental wellbeing was measured with the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Anxiety Symptom Scale (ASS).
Results. Questionnaires were returned by 83% of the COVID-19 lockdown cohort and by 93% of the control cohort. A multivariable analysis controlling for age, cohabitation status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, chronic disease, fertility treatment, parity and children living at home showed no difference in depressive symptoms (MDI). Anxiety symptoms (ASS) were slightly worse in the COVID-19 lockdown cohort (mean difference 1.4 points), mainly driven by questions concerning general anxiety. The largest differences in anxiety were seen in first trimester (adjusted mean difference: 4.0 points).
Conclusion. Pregnant women questioned during COVID-19 showed no change in symptoms of depression and only a modest elevation of anxiety when compared to pregnant women questioned during a nonpandemic period in 2016.


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Overbeck, G., Rasmussen, I., Siersma, V., Høgsgaard Andersen, J., Kragstrup, J., Wilson, P., Graungaard, A. & Ertmann, R. 2021, 'Depression and anxiety symptoms in pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19', Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 49(7), pp. 721-729. https://doi.org/10.1177/14034948211013271

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Last updated: 17 June 2022
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