Background: Age, multimorbidity, immunodeficiency and frailty of older people living in nursing homes make them vulnerable to COVID-19 and overall mortality.

Objective: To estimate overall and COVID-19 mortality parameters and analyse their predictive factors in older people living in nursing homes over a 2-year period.

Design: A 2-year prospective longitudinal multicentre study was conducted between 2020 and 2022.

Setting: Five nursing homes in Central Catalonia (Spain).

Participants: Residents aged 65 years or older who lived in the nursing homes on a permanent basis.

Measurements: Date and causes of deaths were recorded. In addition, socio-demographic and health data were collected. For the effect of mortality, survival curves were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis using Cox regression.

Results: The total sample of 125 subjects had a mean age of 85.10 years (standard deviation=7.3). There were 59 (47.2%) deaths at 24 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.6-55.9) and 25 (20.0%) were due to COVID-19, mostly in the first 3 months. In multivariate analysis, functional impairment (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.33-4.32) was a significant risk factor for mortality independent of age (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.69-2.00) and risk of sarcopenia (HR: 1.40; 95% CI, 0.63-3.12).

Conclusions: Almost half of this sample of nursing home residents died in the 2-year period, and one fifth were attributed to COVID-19. Functional impairment was a risk factor for overall mortality and COVID-19 mortality, independent of age and risk of sarcopenia.


This content is not covered by the Open Government Licence. Please see source record or item for information on rights and permissions.

Cite as

Escriba-Salvans, A., Jerez-Roig, J., Farres-Godayol, P., Bezerra de Souza, D., Skelton, D. & Minobes-Molina, E. 2024, 'Health and socio-demographic determinants of over-mortality in Spanish nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic: a 2-year prospective longitudinal study', Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie. https://researchonline.gcu.ac.uk/en/publications/9c89b5e7-8965-48b8-b6d6-3ffc992a38e8

Downloadable citations

Download HTML citationHTML Download BIB citationBIB Download RIS citationRIS
Last updated: 29 March 2024
Was this page helpful?