Consumption of water varies throughout the day due to the daily routines of the consumer. This pattern of daily water consumption is called the water demand profile. The initiatives to create these profiles are to improve hydraulic performance and to build energy conservation strategies for designed networks in Dubai. Therefore, the aim of the work presented here was to develop and analyze a domestic consumption profile for selected developments with socio-demographic factors including weekday/weekend variation, population, income, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and the outbreak of COVID-19. Data from more than 7000 smart meters were collected while water meters of more than 350 residential flats were examined manually. Water demand profiles generated from the data showed weekdays have more predictable peaks (morning 6–8 am and evening 5–7 pm) than weekends. During Ramadan, peak hours shifted to 7–10 am followed by 3–4 pm during workdays while peaks for low-income areas were higher due to a stricter working routine. The COVID-19 crisis has led to significant rise in observed consumption, with over a 30% increase during the month of Ramadan. The observed results, if compared with further end-use studies on more factors affecting demand profiles, can help in generating both cost and energy efficient networks.


This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits copying and redistribution for non-commercial purposes with no derivatives, provided the original work is properly cited (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Cite as

Rizvi, S., Rustum, R., Deepak, M., Wright, G. & Arthur, S. 2021, 'Identifying and analyzing residential water demand profile; including the impact of covid-19 and month of Ramadan, for selected developments in Dubai, United Arab Emirates', Water Supply, 21(3), pp. 1144-1156. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.319

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Last updated: 16 June 2022
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