Several lines of evidence suggest the presence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater. The use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally. Wastewater is unsafe for human and animal consumption and contains impurities and microbial pathogens. Here, we pose the question of whether the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for irrigation can expose susceptible populations and pets, leading to COVID-19 disease recurrence in the community? It is imperative to study the ecological relationships between humans, animals, and environmental health in relation to COVID-19 to contribute to a “One Health Concept” to design preventative strategies and attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment.


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Siddiqui, R., Khamis, M., Ibrahim, T. & Khan, N. 2020, 'Irrigation System and COVID-19 Recurrence: A Potential Risk Factor in the Transmission of SARS-CoV-2', ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 11(19), pp. 2903-2905. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00570

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Last updated: 04 June 2024
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