COVID-19 was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and by mid-August 2021, there were over 208 million confirmed cases worldwide with more than 4.3 million deaths giving a case fatality ratio of 2.1%. There have also been appreciable unintended consequences of COVID-19 as a result of lockdown and other measures. These include a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs), reduced number of vaccinations among children due to lock-down and other measures as well as fear attending clinics, and economic hardship with implications for rising domestic violence and child labour especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There have also been consequences regarding the education of students and healthcare professionals following closure of universities and other restrictions as well as for ongoing research activities.
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