People experiencing homelessness and alcohol dependence are at increased risk of a range of harms, including from COVID-19. Managed Alcohol Programmes (MAPs) are an alcohol harm reduction intervention specifically for this group. In this paper we report on qualitative findings of a mixed methods study investigating the potential utility of MAPs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland. Interviews, conducted with 40 participants, explored potential views of implementing MAPs during the pandemic. Theoretically, we drew on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to inform data collection and analysis. Six themes were identified which mapped onto three CFIR domains: perceptions of MAPs and the evidence base; necessary components of MAPs; changing culture of alcohol harm reduction; MAPs as a moral and ethical grey area; addressing a service gap; and securing buy-in and partnership working. Participants were generally positive about MAPs and viewed them as a key intervention to address a service gap. Several necessary components were identified for successful implementation of MAPs. Securing buy-in from a range of stakeholders and partnership working were deemed important. Finally, MAPs require careful, long-term planning before implementation. We conclude that MAPs are needed in Scotland and require long-term funding and appropriate resources to ensure they are successful.


© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Cite as

Carver, H., Parkes, T., Masterton, W., Booth, H., Ball, L., Murdoch, H., Falzon, D. & Pauly, B. 2022, 'The Potential for Managed Alcohol Programmes in Scotland during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Exploration of Key Areas for Implementation Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(22), article no: 15207. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215207

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Last updated: 06 February 2023
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