The paper produced by McKinney et.al. for the LSME Research Book 2021 explored the history of pandemics in the twentieth and twenty first centuries and the consequent effects on education, especially school education. This paper draws on international research literature and reports and updates of research from World Organisations: Unesco, United Nations, Unicef, OECD and WHO. The paper will briefly examine some key aspects of the school closures during the SARS outbreak in 2003 and the closures throughout the world during the covid-19 pandemic. For the period of the Covid-19 pandemic, the paper will focus on digital exclusion and food insecurity; the impact of Covid-19 on children’s human rights and the preparation of teachers and student teachers for online learning.
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McKinney, S., Parhi, S., Kumar, R., Shifau, H. & Gray, P. 2022, 'What have we learned about closures of education institutions during the SARS outbreak of 2003 and the Covid-19 pandemic?', LSME Research Compendium 2022: Publication of Research Papers Presented at the 8th LSME International Research Conference on Sustainable Development, London, pp. 85-95. http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/268753/