Since June 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation (SIREN) study has conducted routine PCR testing in UK healthcare workers and sequenced PCR-positive samples. SIREN detected increases in infections and reinfections and detected Omicron subvariant emergence contemporaneous with national surveillance.


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Foulkes, S., Monk, E., Sparkes, D., Hettiarachchi, N., Milligan, I., Munro, K., Taylor-Kerr, A., Platt, N., Howells, A., Kyaw, J., Adaji, E., Gallagher, E., Khawam, J., Wellington, E., Price, L., Crossman, D., Norman, C., De Lacy, E., Cromey, L., Corrigan, D., Lackenby, A., Barbero, P., Elegunde, B., Zambon, M., Chand, M., Brown, C., Islam, J., Atti, A., Hopkins, S., Hall, V., Cole, M. & SIREN Study Group 2022, 'Early warning surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants, United Kingdom, November 2021-September 2022', Emerging Infectious Diseases, 29(1), pp. 184-188. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2901.221293

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Last updated: 24 November 2023
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