The year 2020 has seen the emergence of a global pandemic as a result of the disease COVID-19. This report reviews knowledge of the transmission of COVID-19 indoors, examines the evidence for mitigating measures, and considers the implications for wintertime with a focus on ventilation.


Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

Cite as

Burridge, H., Bhagat, R., Stettler, M., Kumar, P., De Mel, I., Demis, P., Hart, A., Johnson-Llambias, Y., King, M., Klymenko, O., McMillan, A., Morawiecki, P., Pennington, T., Short, M., Sykes, D., Trinh, P., Wilson, S., Wong, C., Wragg, H., Davies Wykes, M., Iddon, C., Woods, A., Mingotti, N., Bhamidipati, N., Woodward, H., Beggs, C., Davies, H., Fitzgerald, S., Pain, C. & Linden, P. 2021, 'The ventilation of buildings and other mitigating measures for COVID-19: a focus on wintertime', Proceedings of The Royal Society A, 477(2247), article no: 20200855. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2020.0855

Downloadable citations

Download HTML citationHTML Download BIB citationBIB Download RIS citationRIS
Last updated: 18 October 2023
Was this page helpful?