The 2021 Year in Review treats developments in the violent extremist and terrorist online scene(s) in the 12-month period from 1 December 2020 to 30 November 2021. It accomplishes this by surveying, describing, and integrating the findings of relevant articles and reports produced by academics, think tanks, civil society, and governmental organisations; high quality media coverage; and the first-hand experience and primary research of the authors.

The March 2019 Christchurch attacks, a series of subsequent attacks in the United States, Germany, and elsewhere, events online and offline around the US Presidential election, and a general uptick in ‘real world’ and extreme right online activity globally during the Covid-19 pandemic have all put violent extreme right (online) activity firmly centre stage however, which is reproduced in the structuring of the present report. This does not necessarily mean that the threat from violent jihadism is diminished, but rather reflects the reason behind the increased focus by a range of relevant actors on the risks posed by unfettered online violent extreme right activity.

Cite as

Conway, M., Watkin, A. & Looney, S. 2022, Violent Extremism and Terrorism Online in 2021: The Year in Review, European Union. Available at: https://research-portal.uws.ac.uk/en/publications/8f7a40b8-9efd-42c9-b988-374462ee789c

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Last updated: 16 June 2022
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